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Models and samples as a resource for writing
by Greg Gobel
- 8

Lesson procedure

Stage Time Procedure Aims Aids
1 8 minutes

Lead-in stage and Lesson Outline

1A. The teacher tells the learners brief background information about the film clip they will see. (See Board 1). Learners are given the task to watch and assess the character’s success at being culturally sensitive in the situation. Interaction pattern: T-class (plenary/lockstep).

1B. The learners watch a brief clip from ‘Lost in Translation’. (Starting at 00:01.53 for about 30-45 seconds.) Interaction pattern: class-dvd.

1C. In pairs, learners complete the task of assessing the character’s success. Interaction pattern: closed pairs.

1D. Class feedback. As a class, the learners compare what they’ve decided. This discussion is guided by the teacher as needed. The idea of ‘cultural gaffes’ should emerge in this feedback. Interaction pattern: S-S; T-S.

1E. Teacher gives the learners a brief outline of the day’s lesson.

To introduce the topic of cultural differences.

To activate students’ schemata.

To increase learners’ motivation by using a recent film.

Learners will be able to use their worldly knowledge to assess a situation involving cultural interaction in a film.

For learners to feel comfortable about where the lesson is heading.

DVD player, DVD (Lost in Translation), white board, board pens
2 4 minutes

Personalized Speaking

2A. Teacher instructs learners to tell each other about any or all of these: cultural gaffes they have committed, cultural gaffes they have seen foreigners commit here in Spain, cultural gaffes they have heard about (from a friend, relative, etc.). Interaction pattern: plenary.

2B. Learners speak about cultural gaffes with their partner. Interaction pattern: closed pairs.

2C. Feedback. T asks pairs what they discussed. Learners tell the T and the class. Interaction pattern: T-class (S-S).

To encourage learners to personally relate to the topic; to encourage an affective response to the topic.

To maintain learners’ motivation by making the topic personally relevant, interesting, and fun.

3 3 minutes

Introduction to the CAE Information Sheet

3A. Leading out of the feedback in 3C, teacher elicits from students where they can find information about how to behave in a foreign country/culture. If students do not mention ‘information sheet’, teacher will tell them and relate it to the exam. Interaction pattern: T-class.

3B. Use of the OHP to help show students what an information sheet looks like, focusing on the basic structure, students complete Do’s and Don’ts sheet. Interaction pattern: S-S closed pairs with focus on OHP.

To show students what the CAE information sheet ‘looks’ like. This will be important because this is a type of writing that is not part of the FCE and students may not be familiar with it.  
4 4-5 minutes

Brainstorming Topics for an Information Sheet

4A. Teacher instructs students to think of as many topics as they can that could be included in this style of information sheet. Interaction pattern: T-class

4B. Students carry out brainstorming task. Interaction pattern: closed pairs.

4C. Feedback. Students tell the teacher which topics they’ve thought of and the teacher writes them on the board in a list. Interaction pattern: S-T. (See Board 2) (The list can be referred to by the students later.)

To encourage students to draw on worldly knowledge to brainstorm possible topics that could be included in an information sheet. (Students need paper and pen)
5 5-6 minutes

Main Considerations for planning a CAE Information Sheet

5A. The teacher instructs the students to discuss the questions about planning an information sheet. There are five questions, and the teacher will instruct half the class to start at the top, and half the class to start at the bottom. Interaction pattern: T-class

5B. The students discuss their ideas for the questions about planning an information sheet. (Note: depending on time, the students will either discuss all five questions, or when they ‘meet in the middle’ they will be asked to stop. Interaction pattern: S-S closed pairs.

5C. Feedback. The students offer their ideas about some of the questions to the whole class and the teacher. Interaction pattern: S-class, S-T.

5D. The teacher gives learners the ‘answers’ from the Teacher’s Book and the students read the answers and compare them with their own ideas. Interaction pattern: S-S closed pairs.

To raise students’ awareness of the primary considerations when planning an information sheet: use of a title, useful sections, style of writing, the type of language to be used, and how topics can be introduced.

To ‘invite’ students into the traditional teacher’s realm by giving them notes from the Teacher’s Book.

Questions sheet, Answer sheet
6 5 minutes

Looking at and Thinking about a Plan

6A. The teacher shows the model of the plan to the students, and asks students to use the ideas on the mind map to make predictions about the information sheet they will soon read, considering why some of the traditions may exist and which may be similar or different to the customs in Spain.

6B. The students make predictions and discuss similarities and differences.

6C. Feedback. Very quick feedback to round of the activity and move into the following stage.

To introduce a simple and helpful planning style.

To encourage students to expand on the limited information that is in the plan and to personalize the plan by comparing it to what they know about Spanish culture.

For students to notice the type of information and the style in which the plan is written.

Pre-made plan
7 10-12 minutes

Focusing on Useful Language for an Information Sheet

7A. The teacher instructs the students to read the information sheet and compare what they read with their predictions.

7B. The students read the information sheet and compare.

7C. Discussion about what their predictions and what they read, similarities and differences, and any surprises.

7D. Teacher instructs students to read the information sheet again and look for ‘inappropriately harsh’ language and to change the language by using softening expressions.

7E. The students read the text and notice harsh language and make changes to soften it.

7F. Feedback. Snappy verbal feedback for a few changes.

7G. The teacher instructs the students to read the ‘better’ information sheet and compare their changes with what the more appropriately softened expressions that they notice.

7H. Feedback to round off the activity (See board 3)

To help train students to be able to better notice language in texts.

To focus students on appropriate and inappropriate language for giving advise and information in an information sheet.

‘Bad’ information sheet, ‘Good’ information sheet,

whiteboard, board pens
8 10-12 minutes

Planning an Information Sheet

8A. The teacher instructs the students to make a plan for the information sheet that they will write for homework.

8B. The students help each other plan their information sheets, including a title, three topics, some notes for each topic and useful language. This is done in mind map format.

8C. Feedback. Students can tell each other a few of their ideas.
For students to make a useful plan that they can take home with them and use to help write their information sheet. Blank mind map sheet
9 1-2 minutes

Round up:

9A. Homework is reclarified (writing the information sheet.) Show students pages 27 and 203 in the Student’s Book.

9B. Students have the opportunity to ask any pending questions.

For students to know what to do for homework.

For students to get clarification on what they still may not be so sure about.

Student’s Book.
    Back up stages: The following stages are available if there is time remaining after Stage 8. The following stages may or may not be used and may not follow the order below, depending on just how much To be prepared with extra material that suitably fits the lesson.  
10 5-7 minutes

Beginning the drafting process

10A. Students write the introduction of their information sheet.

10B. Students swap with a partner and help make corrections and give suggestions.

To effectively use any extra time at the end of the lesson.

For students to collaboratively help each other with drafting.

(Students need paper and pen/pencil.)
11 2 minutes

Correction spot

11A. Students correct their own mistakes from earlier in the lesson.

To sensitize students to the mistakes they make.

To focus students on accuracy.

Correction notebook.

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