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Emotional Intelligence
by Steve Darn
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The institution EQ has been adopted as a management-training tool, and as such is useful in educational management and administration. The institution plays a major role in creating an environment conducive to EQ. Much of this is to do with creating a sense of identity, safety and value:

  • Attachment – a sense of belonging to the school or university.
  • Reassurance – that others find the experience difficult.
  • Bonding – enabling the formation of friendships.
  • Induction – informing students of what is available and what they can do.
  • Training - in study skills, time management and stress reduction.
  • Holistic approach – mind and body – sports, relaxation, cultural activities, clubs and societies.
EQ and other models and theories There are clear links between EQ and other theories, models and methodologies to do with personal development. EQ is seen as a complement rather than an alternative to these:
  • Transactional Analysis (Eric Berne) is a theory of psychology which initially identifies three different states (Parent - Adult – Child) that can be used in interactions with students.
  • Multiple Intelligences Theory (Howard Gardner) is a psychological and educational theory which recognises different types of intelligence and draws attention to the needs of individual students. Howard Gardner was involved in much of the early research into EQ.
  • NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming) (Richard Bandler and John Grinder) is a set of models and principles that try to describe the relationship between mind, language and perception. Behaviour and learning can be changed using a variety of techniques to achieve success. There is a very strong link between EQ and the NLP concept of metaprograms, and many techniques are common to the teaching of both EQ and NLP.
  • Johari Window (Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham)is a metaphorical tool used to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy (Abraham Maslow)is a motivational model identifying layers of human needs. The provision of lower level need encourages EQ, while ‘self-actualisers’ have usually developed a high EQ.

Conclusion Changes in society are affecting EQ development. EQ is initially developed in childhood and youth, and research suggests that successive generations are becoming less emotionally aware. Factors contributing to this may include changes in family structure, a reduced family role in education, mobility and the influence of technology. Whatever the reasons, the teaching and development of Emotional Intelligence is becoming important across the curriculum, from elementary to university level.

Reading and Websites

Albert Ellis, How to Stubbornly Refuse to Make Yourself Miserable about Anything Lyle Stuart 1998
Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, Bantam 1997
Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam 2000
Adele Lynn, The Emotional Intelligence Activity Book, AMACOM 2001
Diane Schilling, 50 Activities for Teaching Emotional Intelligence, Innerchoice 1999 - an organisation devoted to emotional literacy. - The Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organisations.


Steve Darn has lived and taught in Turkey for over 20 years, in the high school, private language school and university sectors. He was formerly the Director of the British Council Teachers’ Centre in Izmir, and is currently a teacher and trainer in the School of Foreign Languages at Izmir University of Economics. Steve
He also trains teachers and trainers for the British Council in Turkey and is a tutor and assessor for Cambridge ESOL Teaching Awards. He is a regular contributor to a number of ELT magazines.

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