Discourse in Writing
by Emma Worrall
- lesson plan - the procedure
Time : 15 mins
Aims: To introduce the topics of watching television and reading
books. To encourage students to use some of the vocabulary
from the essay.
The students will discuss the following question "Which
do you prefer doing in your free time, reading books or watching
television? Why?". If students do not use specific vocabulary
from the essay which I think they might find difficult (i.e.
current affairs and soap operas), I will introduce the words
in the class during feedback by asking about the students
favourite types of TV programmes and books.
Stage 2 Ordering the article
Time: 10 mins
Aims: To encourage the students to use passive knowledge of
a variety of discourse markers and to make assumptions about
the logical order of the essay based on content words.
Students will be given the sentences of an essay (see appendix)
cut up on strips of card. Students will be told the number
of the first paragraph to help them start. The teacher will
monitor help and encourage the students to reassess sentences
put in the wrong order. Students will blutak their ordered
essay onto large pieces of card.
Stage 3 Checking
Time: 4 mins.
Aims: To provide a model of the composition in paragraph form.
Students will check their essay.
The students will check the original essay (in paragraph
form) on an OHP (see appendix 4a). Students are given their
own copy of the original essay for them to assess and mark
Stage 4 Personal Response
Interaction : Groups/T
Time: 7 mins.
Aims: To an encourage an affective response to the article.
Students will give an affective response to the article by
ticking the things they agree with and crossing the things
they do not agree with and putting a question mark next to
anything they do not understand. Students will discus in their
groups how many things they agreed and disagreed with and
will help with question marks before checking with the teacher.
Stage 5 Language Work
Interaction: Groups/Indiv/Whole class/T
Time: 15 mins
Aims: To encourage students to notice the discourse markers
(which will be known to the students as "linking devices")
used in the essay and to categorise them under the following
and ?- if students are unsure.
Ask students how they put the essay together. Ask what linking
devices are then they will highlight the linking devices that
they recognise on their photocopy of the essay. Students then
check their linking device choices against those underlined
on another OHT copy of the essay (see appendix 4b). The teacher
demonstrates one example of a discourse marker for each category.
Students will then go to the board and stick cards with the
linking devices written on, under the correct categories of
discourse markers on the board. If any corrections are to
be made students will be encouraged to work it out for themselves.
Stage 6 Group Writing
Time: 15 mins.
Aim: To work together to produce the missing sentences from
their essay using their knowledge of the content words and
Students in group(s) A will remove the following sentence
cards: 9,5 and 8. Students in group(s) B will remove sentences
7,2 and 10 from their essays (see appendix 2). They will have
strips of paper to write their new sentences on and they will
be told that they have to reproduce the missing sentences
from their essays, whilst keeping the same meaning and using
appropriate linking devices (which will be on the cards on
the board for the duration of the exercise) and that they
will have the use of the help cards if they struggle to reproduce
the sentences. Any fast finishing groups will help the other
group or they will be asked to choose 2 or 3 discourse markers,
that are new or which they never use, to copy into their notebooks
with example sentences.
Stage 7 Dovetailing
Time: 15 mins
Aim: To analyse their completed essays and check cohesion
and the correct usage of the discourse markers. To reflect
on their choice of language and be given the chance to make
any changes to their work.
The students will regroup and be shown, via the model on
the board, how to rearrange their sentences. The original
sentences (apart from the first and last two sentence cards)
will be discarded and students will replace them with their
versions of the essay, thus sentences 9,7,5,2,8 and 10 will
be the students own work.
Stage 8 Homework
Aim: To consolidate/practise and give students the opportunity
to reproduce the discourse markers in a further discursive
(see appendix). From Instant Grammar Lessons). This will be
checked in the next class.
the lesson materials - appendix
the print friendly version
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